I. Topic: Respiration
Nervous Control of Breathing
Задание 1. Прочтите и запишите новые слова:
cerebral cortex – (n) кора мозга
excite – (v) возбуждать
excitation – (n) возбуждение
inhibition – (n) торможение
inhibit – (v) ингибировать, остановить
decrease – (v) уменьшать(ся)
arise – (v) появляться, появляться
transmit – (v) передавать
induce – (v) вызывать; провоцировать; приводить (к чему-л.)
Nervous Control of Breathing
The mechanism of respiration regulation is Nervous Control of Breathing very complex. It is controlled by cerebral cortex. In the medulla oblongata there is respiratory centre. In the respiratory centre both excitation and inhibition alternate (чередоваться). The specific stimulus of the respiratory centre is carbon dioxide. As soon as the blood accumulates a certain amount of carbon dioxide, the Nervous Control of Breathing respiratory centre becomes excited. It transmits impulses through the spinal cord to the respiratory muscles; they contract and an inhalation takes place. When the respiratory centre is inhibited the transmission of impulses to the respiratory muscle decreases, the muscles relax and an exhalation starts.
During inhalation the Nervous Control of Breathing lungs expand. While arising in the receptors the excitationis transmitted along the vagus nerve to the respiratory centre and inhibits it, and an exhalation results.
Thus respiration is induced by nervous impulses; an inhalation stimulates an exhalation, and the exhalation brings about an accumulation of carbon dioxide which stimulates Nervous Control of Breathing an inhalation.
Задание 2.Ответьте на вопросы:
1) What organ controls the mechanism of respiration regulation?
2) Where is the respiratory centre located?
3) What chemical element is the specific stimulus of the respiratory centre?
4) When does the respiratory centre become excited?
5) What happens when the respiratory centre becomes excited?
6) What happens when the Nervous Control of Breathing respiratory centre is inhibited?
7) When does the exhalation result?
8) What happens when the respiration is induced by nervous impulses?
II. Grammar. Passive Voice
Задание 3. Закончите предложения, заменив инфинитив, данный в скобках, формой страдательного залога в обозначенном времени. Переведите предложения на российский язык. Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную, где может быть Nervous Control of Breathing по смыслу, формы.
a) Present Simple
1) These drugs (to prescribe) very seldom.
2) Basic sciences (to study) by medical students during the first two or three years.
3) The functions of the human body (to learn) in classes in physiology.
4) A lot of people (to treat) in this hospital.
5) Artificial Nervous Control of Breathing limbs (to provide) free of charge.
6) Can you see what (to write) on this prescription?
7) He often (to ask) to give lectures.
b) Past Simple
1) This drug (to prescribe) to the patient a week ago.
2) Basic medical procedures (to learn) by the students during their practice in this hospital.
3) Many Nervous Control of Breathing people (to treat) in this hospital last year.
4) When he (to ask) to help, he decided to come at once.
5) The article (to write) two months ago.
6) Yesterday the children (to tell) to stay at home.
7) The patient (to examine) by the doctor on duty.
c) Future Simple
1) I think this Nervous Control of Breathing drug (to prescribe) to you.
2) Special medical subjects (to study) in the senior years.
3) He (to see) by an eye specialist next week.
4) All kinds of medical treatment (to provide) in our hospital if necessary.
5) The students (to ask) a lot of questions in the exam.
Задание 4. Сравните Nervous Control of Breathing выделенные глагольные словосочетания в парах предложений и укажите разницу меж ними. Переведите предложения на российский язык.
1. We can divide the human body 1. The human body can be divided
into three main parts. into three main parts.
2. We must regard a disease as a 2. A disease must be regarded as a
morbid state of Nervous Control of Breathing the whole body. morbid state of the whole body.
3. I think we can unite our forces. 3. I think our forces can be united.
4. Anybody can solve this problem. 4. This problem can be solved by anybody.
5. The laboratory assistant must 5. Everything necessary for the blood
prepare everything necessary test must Nervous Control of Breathing be prepared by the laboratory
for the blood test. assistant.
6. Professor N. must perform this 6. This operation must be performed
operation. by Professor N.
Задание 5. Изложите последующую информацию в страдательном залоге. Переведите предложения в страдательном залоге на российский язык.
1. Changes in one of the organs can affect the entire organism.
2. We must not Nervous Control of Breathing regard a disease as a purely local disturbance.
3. We can easily demonstrate the effect of physical work on the metabolic processes in our organism.
4. You must use this apparatus very carefully.
5. You may use this equipment for your experiment.
6. Many factors can cause a disturbance in our organism.